Call for Evidence - Labelling for Animal Welfare

Closes 6 Dec 2021


Below are a set of definitions that are used throughout the call for evidence. Legal definitions have been used where possible, including a link to the relevant legal text.

In some cases, we have defined terms solely for this call for evidence to provide clarity and to minimise differing interpretations of the questions as much as possible. These definitions are indicated by an asterisk ‘*’. If any labelling reforms were introduced, we would need to define such terms in law and would expect to engage further on this.   

  • *Baseline UK welfare regulations: The high standards for animal welfare set out in UK legislation, which relate to animal welfare on-farm, during transport and slaughter, or elsewhere. This includes, but is not limited to: 

  • *Higher welfare: exceeding baseline UK welfare regulations  

  • *UK baseline products: those, either domestically produced or imported, that meet our baseline UK welfare regulations 

  • *Higher welfare products: those, either domestically produced or imported, that exceed our baseline UK welfare regulations 

  • *Imports of lower welfare: the subset of imports that do not meet our baseline UK welfare regulations 

  • *Meat, eggs, and milk: any substance derived from an animal and intended for human consumption (full definitions can be found in The Specific Food Hygiene Regulation 853/2004)  

  • Unprocessed products: those not substantially altered from an initial state; this category includes products that have been frozen, minced, or otherwise altered without the addition of another ingredient (definition: Hygiene Regulation 852/2004

  • Processed products: those substantially altered from an initial state through the addition of another ingredient or ingredients, for example cured meats or ready meals (definition: Hygiene Regulation 852/2004

  • *Minimally processed products: those processed products which have a major ingredient that is characteristic of the food, with limited additional ingredients that make up the minority of the food, for example butter  

  • Primary ingredient: an ingredient or ingredients of a food that represent more than 50% of that food or which are usually associated with the name of the food by the consumer and for which in most cases a quantitative indication is required, for example lamb in a shepherd’s pie (definition: Food Information to Consumers Regulation 1169/2011

  • *Major ingredient: the primary ingredient which makes up the largest share of that food, for example milk in butter, and typically represents more than 50% of that food 

  • *Secondary ingredient: any ingredient or ingredients of a food which are not primary ingredients and for which a quantitative indication is not required, for example egg in a cake 

  • Mass caterer: any establishment (including a vehicle or a fixed or mobile stall), such as restaurants, canteens, schools, hospitals and catering enterprises in which, in the course of a business, food is prepared to be ready for consumption by the final consumer (definition: Food Information to Consumers Regulation 1169/2011

  • Food information: information concerning a food and made available to the final consumer by means of a label, other accompanying material, or any other means including modern technology tools or verbal communication (definition: Food Information to Consumers Regulation 1169/2011)  

  • Labelling: any food information, written or pictorial, including that displayed on packaging, a shelf, online or on a menu, or otherwise accompanying a product (definition: Food Information to Consumers Regulation 1169/2011)  

  • Marketing standards: the set of legally defined requirements governing the production, promotion and sale of certain products, including eggs and beef (definition: Agriculture Act 2020 and EU regulation 1308/2013

  • *Marketing terms: words or phrases used to promote a product, and which are not legally defined or otherwise certified, for example  ‘grass-fed’